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France - National championship

Overview Honours Roll Team appearances Related trophies Sources Current Season


French championship had many format during the years.
Until 1950/51 teams partecipating to first division were selected, at least in part, after a qualifier phase played at the beginning of the season.

In this first period there was the worst crisis in french rugby history leading in 1930 to the birth of a dissident union (UFRA) that organized an alternative tournament. After two seasons, UFRA teams were readmitted to FFR.

Since 1951/52 season the 2 main divisions were permanently separated with an annual promotion/relegation mechanism.

Second division became in 1997 Nationale 2 and in 2001 Fédérale 2.

First division split in a Group A and a Group B in 1975. For some years the best Group B teams partecipated to championship final phase but, since 1980 Group B became a lower division that was renamed Nationale 1 in 1997 and Fédérale 1 in 2001.

With the advent of professionalism, in 1995, Group A split into 2 groups: Group A1, that became Elite 1, Top 16 and finally Top 14, and Group A2 that became Elite 2 and finally Pro D2.

During WWI, as many players were sent to the front, the championship was interrupted and substituted by the Coupe de l'Esperance.

The league pyramid

The last reform of the league pyramid was in 2016. Since 2016/17 season the league structure is the following:

Level 1 Top 14
14 teams - 1 relegation and 1 team to promotion/relegation playoff against a Pro D2 team
Level 2 Pro D2
16 teams - 1 promotion after playoff, 1 team to promotion/relegation playoff against a Top 14 team and 2 relegations
Level 3 Fédérale 1
40 teams divided into 4 groups:
1 "Poule d'accession" - 1 promotion, 1 promotion after playoffs and 1 team to relegation playout
3 "Jean Prat poules" - 1 relegation and 1 team to relegation playout
Level 4 Fédérale 2
80 teams divided into 8 groups - 4 promotions after playoffs and 16 relegations
Level 5 Fédérale 3
160 teams divided into 16 groups - 16 promotions after playoffs and 32 relegations
Level 6-11 Lower Leagues
1 to 6 levels, organized by territorial comitees.

Honours Roll

Season:WinnersRunners upFormatResult
2018/19Toulouse (20)Clermont AuvergneFinal24-18
2017/18Castres (5)MontpellierFinal29-13
2016/17Clermont Auvergne (2)ToulonFinal22-16
2015/16Racing 92 (6)ToulonFinal29-21
2014/15Stade Français (14)Clermont AuvergneFinal12-6
2013/14Toulon (4)CastresFinal18-10
2012/13Castres (4)ToulonFinal19-14
2011/12Toulouse (19)ToulonFinal18-12
2010/11Toulouse (18)MontpellierFinal15-10
2009/10Clermont Auvergne (1)PerpignanFinal19-6
2008/09Perpignan (7)Clermont AuvergneFinal22-13
2007/08Toulouse (17)Clermont AuvergneFinal26-20
2006/07Stade Français (13)Clermont AuvergneFinal23-18
2005/06Biarritz (5)ToulouseFinal40-13
2004/05Biarritz (4)Stade FrançaisFinal37-34
2003/04Stade Français (12)PerpignanFinal38-20
2002/03Stade Français (11)ToulouseFinal32-18
2001/02Biarritz (3)AgenFinal25-22
2000/01Toulouse (16)MontferrandFinal34-22
1999/00Stade Français (10)ColomiersFinal28-23
1998/99Toulouse (15)MontferrandFinal15-11
1997/98Stade Français (9)PerpignanFinal34-7
1996/97Toulouse (14)BourgoinFinal12-6
1995/96Toulouse (13)BriveFinal20-13
1994/95Toulouse (12)CastresFinal31-16
1993/94Toulouse (11)MontferrandFinal22-16
1992/93Castres (3)GrenobleFinal14-11
1991/92Toulon (3)BiarritzFinal19-14
1990/91Club Athletique Bordeaux Begles (2)ToulouseFinal19-10
1989/90Racing Club de France (5)AgenFinal22-12
1988/89Toulouse (10)ToulonFinal18-12
1987/88Agen (8)TarbesFinal9-3
1986/87Toulon (2)Racing Club de FranceFinal15-12
1985/86Toulouse (9)AgenFinal16-6
1984/85Toulouse (8)ToulonFinal36-22
1983/84Béziers (11)AgenFinal21-21
1982/83Béziers (10)NiceFinal14-6
1981/82Agen (7)BayonneFinal18-9
1980/81Béziers (9)Stade bagnéraisFinal22-13
1979/80Béziers (8)ToulouseFinal10-6
1978/79Narbonne (2)Stade bagnéraisFinal10-0
1977/78Béziers (7)MontferrandFinal31-9
1976/77Béziers (6)PerpignanFinal12-4
1975/76Agen (6)BéziersFinal13-10
1974/75Béziers (5)BriveFinal13-12
1973/74Béziers (4)NarbonneFinal16-14
1972/73Tarbes (2)DaxFinal18-12
1971/72Béziers (3)BriveFinal9-0
1970/71Béziers (2)ToulonFinal15-9
1969/70La Voulte sportif (1)MontferrandFinal3-0
1968/69Club Athletique Bordeaux Begles (1)ToulouseFinal11-9
1967/68FC Lourdes (8)ToulonFinal9-9
1966/67Montauban (1)Club Athletique Bordeaux BeglesFinal11-3
1965/66Agen (5)DaxFinal9-8
1964/65Agen (4)BriveFinal15-8
1963/64Pau (3)BéziersFinal14-0
1962/63Mont de Marsan (1)DaxFinal9-6
1961/62Agen (3)BéziersFinal14-11
1960/61Béziers (1)DaxFinal6-3
1959/60FC Lourdes (7)BéziersFinal14-11
1958/59Racing Club de France (4)Mont de MarsanFinal8-3
1957/58FC Lourdes (6)SC MazametFinal25-8
1956/57FC Lourdes (5)Racing Club de FranceFinal16-13
1955/56FC Lourdes (4)DaxFinal20-0
1954/55Perpignan (6)FC LourdesFinal11-6
1953/54Grenoble (1)US CognacFinal5-3
1952/53FC Lourdes (3)Mont de MarsanFinal21-16
1951/52FC Lourdes (2)PerpignanFinal20-11
1950/51US Carmaux (1)TarbesFinal14-12
1949/50Castres (2)Racing Club de FranceFinal11-8
1948/49Castres (1)Mont de MarsanFinal14-3
1947/48FC Lourdes (1)ToulonFinal11-3
1946/47Toulouse (7)AgenFinal10-3
1945/46Pau (2)FC LourdesFinal11-0
1944/45Agen (2)FC LourdesFinal7-3
1943/44Perpignan (5)BayonneFinal20-5
1942/43Bayonne (3)AgenFinal3-0
1938/39Biarritz (2)PerpignanFinal6-0
1937/38Perpignan (4)BiarritzFinal11-6
1936/37CS Vienne (1)MontferrandFinal13-7
1935/36Narbonne (1)MontferrandFinal6-3
1934/35Biarritz (1)PerpignanFinal3-0
1933/34Bayonne (2)BiarritzFinal13-8
1932/33Lyon OU (2)NarbonneFinal10-3
1931/32Lyon OU (1)NarbonneFinal9-3
1930/31Toulon (1)Lyon OUFinal6-3
1929/30Agen (1)US QuillanFinal4-0
1928/29US Quillan (1)FC LézignanFinal11-8
1927/28Pau (1)US QuillanFinal6-4
1926/27Toulouse (6)Stade FrançaisFinal19-9
1925/26Toulouse (5)PerpignanFinal11-0
1924/25Perpignan (3)CarcassonneFinal5-0
1923/24Toulouse (4)PerpignanFinal3-0
1922/23Toulouse (3)BayonneFinal3-0
1921/22Toulouse (2)BayonneFinal6-0
1920/21Perpignan (2)ToulouseFinal5-0
1919/20Tarbes (1)Racing Club de FranceFinal8-3
1913/14Perpignan (1)TarbesFinal8-7
1912/13Bayonne (1)SCUF ParisFinal31-8
1911/12Toulouse (1)Racing Club de FranceFinal8-6
1910/11Stade Bordelais (7)SCUF ParisFinal14-0
1909/10FC Lyon (1)Stade BordelaisFinal13-8
1908/09Stade Bordelais (6)ToulouseFinal17-0
1907/08Stade Français (8)Stade BordelaisFinal16-3
1906/07Stade Bordelais (5)Stade FrançaisFinal14-3
1905/06Stade Bordelais (4)Stade FrançaisFinal9-0
1904/05Stade Bordelais (3)Stade FrançaisFinal12-3
1903/04Stade Bordelais (2)Stade FrançaisFinal3-0
1902/03Stade Français (7)SOETFinal16-8
1901/02Racing Club de France (3)Stade BordelaisFinal6-0
1900/01Stade Français (6)Stade BordelaisFinal3-0
1899/00Racing Club de France (2)Stade BordelaisFinal37-3
1898/99Stade Bordelais (1)Stade FrançaisFinal5-3
1897/98Stade Français (5)Racing Club de FranceRound Robin 
1896/97Stade Français (4)Olympique ParisRound Robin 
1895/96Olympique Paris (1)Stade FrançaisFinal12-0
1894/95Stade Français (3)Olympique ParisFinal16-0
1893/94Stade Français (2)Inter-NosFinal18-0
1892/93Stade Français (1)Racing Club de FranceFinal7-3
1891/92Racing Club de France (1)Stade FrançaisFinal4-3

Team appearances

National Championship since 1995/96 Pro D2 since 1995/96
Castres 25 1995/96 2019/20
Clermont Auvergne 25 1995/96 2019/20
Toulouse 25 1995/96 2019/20
Stade Français 23 1997/98 2019/20
Brive 21 1995/96 2019/20
Perpignan 20 1995/96 2018/19
Agen 19 1995/96 2019/20
Montpellier 19 1995/96 2019/20
Biarritz 18 1996/97 2013/14
Toulon 18 1995/96 2019/20
Bordeaux Begles 17 1995/96 2019/20
Bourgoin 16 1995/96 2010/11
Pau 16 1995/96 2019/20
Grenoble 15 1995/96 2018/19
Bayonne 14 1995/96 2019/20
Racing 92 14 1995/96 2019/20
La Rochelle 12 1997/98 2019/20
Narbonne 12 1995/96 2006/07
Colomiers 9 1995/96 2003/04
Dax 9 1995/96 2008/09
Béziers 8 1996/97 2004/05
Montauban 8 1999/00 2009/10
Lyon OU 6 2011/12 2019/20
Auch 5 1998/99 2007/08
Mont de Marsan 5 1999/00 2012/13
Nimes 4 1995/96 1999/00
Oyonnax 4 2013/14 2017/18
Périgueux 4 1996/97 2000/01
Albi 3 2006/07 2009/10
Aurillac 3 1998/99 2000/01
Nice 3 1995/96 1998/99
Paris université club 1 1996/97 1996/97
Rumilly 1 1995/96 1995/96
Stade Dijonnais 1 1996/97 1996/97
TeamTeam appearancesFirst
Aurillac 20 1996/97 2019/20
Tarbes 19 1995/96 2015/16
Mont de Marsan 17 1998/99 2019/20
Béziers 15 1995/96 2019/20
Auch 14 1995/96 2013/14
Dax 14 2002/03 2017/18
Colomiers 13 2005/06 2019/20
La Rochelle 13 1995/96 2013/14
Montauban 13 1995/96 2019/20
Oyonnax 13 2003/04 2019/20
Albi 12 2002/03 2016/17
Lyon OU 12 2002/03 2015/16
Bayonne 11 1996/97 2018/19
Narbonne 11 2007/08 2017/18
Racing 92 11 1996/97 2008/09
Tyrosse 11 1995/96 2005/06
Carcassonne 10 2010/11 2019/20
Grenoble 9 2001/02 2019/20
Pau 9 2006/07 2014/15
Provence Rugby 9 2004/05 2019/20
Biarritz 7 1995/96 2019/20
Périgueux 7 1995/96 2011/12
Toulon 7 2000/01 2007/08
Agen 6 2007/08 2016/17
Bordeaux Begles 6 2003/04 2010/11
Montpellier 6 1996/97 2002/03
Rumilly 6 1996/97 2001/02
Bourgoin 5 2011/12 2016/17
Marmande 5 1996/97 2002/03
Perpignan 5 2014/15 2019/20
Stade Bordelais 5 1995/96 2005/06
Valence d'Agen 5 1995/96 1999/00
Aubenas 4 1999/00 2002/03
Brive 4 2001/02 2018/19
Istres 4 1995/96 2000/01
Limoges 4 2003/04 2007/08
Massy 4 2012/13 2018/19
SC Graulhet 4 1995/96 1999/00
Soyaux Angoulême 4 2016/17 2019/20
Stade Dijonnais 4 1995/96 1999/00
Vannes 4 2016/17 2019/20
Balma ORC 3 1997/98 1999/00
Bressane 3 2008/09 2018/19
Lannemezan 3 1998/99 2009/10
Lombez Samatan 3 1997/98 1999/00
Nevers 3 2017/18 2019/20
RC Bassin d'Arcachon 3 1996/97 1998/99
RC Orléans 3 1997/98 1999/00
RC Strasbourg 3 1997/98 1999/00
FC Lourdes 2 1995/96 1996/97
Nice 2 1996/97 1999/00
Nimes 2 1997/98 2000/01
Paris université club 2 1995/96 1997/98
RC Cannes 2 1995/96 1997/98
Saint-Paul sports 2 1995/96 1996/97
Tours 2 1999/00 2001/02
Valence Romans 2 1995/96 2019/20
Blagnac 1 2007/08 2007/08
ES Catalane 1 1995/96 1995/96
Gaillac 1 2006/07 2006/07
Peyrehorade 1 1996/97 1996/97
RC Châteaurenard 1 1995/96 1995/96
RC Creusot Montchanin Bourgogne 1 1999/00 1999/00
Rouen 1 2019/20 2019/20
Saint Etienne 1 2010/11 2010/11
Stade Français 1 1996/97 1996/97
Villefranche de Lauragais 1 1998/99 1998/99

Related trophies

Coupe de l'Esperance
Jean Prat Trophy
Season:WinnersRunners upFormatResult
2017/18Lavaur (1)TrélissacFinal24-21
2016/17Rouen (1)MâconFinal29-15
2015/16SO Chambéry (1)Valence d'AgenFinal34-27
2014/15Pays d'Aix (2)LilleFinal12-6
2013/14Montauban (1)MassyFinal18-14
2012/13Bressane (1)BourgoinFinal15-13
2011/12Colomiers (3)MassyFinal20-16
2010/11Béziers (1)PérigueuxFinal13-6
2009/10Carcassonne (1)Saint EtienneFinal16-3
2008/09Lannemezan (1)Pays d'AixFinal9-6
2007/08Colomiers (2)BressaneFinal36-3
2006/07Aurillac (1)BlagnacFinal31-6
2005/06Gaillac (1)LimogesFinal21-18
2004/05Colomiers (1)FC OloronFinal40-22
2003/04Pays d'Aix (1)Stade BordelaisFinal21-12
2002/03Limoges (1)OyonnaxFinal19-18
2001/02Lyon OU (1)AlbiFinal28-23
2000/01Oyonnax (1)US La TesteFinal33-16
1999/00FC Oloron (1)AlbiFinal30-23
1998/99Aubenas (1)SC GraulhetFinal25-24
1997/98Mont de Marsan (1)Villefranche de LauragaisFinal45-3
Première Division Fédérale championship
Group B
Season:WinnersRunners upFormatResult
1996/97Balma ORC (1)RC OrléansFinal15-14
1995/96Stade Français (1)AurillacFinal23-16
1994/95FC Lourdes (1)US RomansFinal37-36
1993/94RC Châteaurenard (2)Saint-Paul sportsFinal22-21
1992/93Périgueux (1)Stade DijonnaisFinal9-6
1991/92RC Châteaurenard (1)OyonnaxFinal15-4
1990/91SC Graulhet (1)RumillyFinal33-16
1989/90Stade montchaninois (1)PauFinal18-7
1988/89Castres (1)PauFinal18-9
1987/88Rumilly (1)NimesFinal12-10
1986/87Saint-Jean-de-Luz OR (1)US BergeracFinal16-10
1985/86SC Angoulême (1)VoironFinal22-17
1984/85Marmande (1)SA HagetmauFinal15-11
1983/84Bourgoin (1)Le CreusotFinal12-9
1982/83SA Hagetmau (1)Paris université clubFinal12-7
1981/82Avenir aturin (1)BourgoinFinal16-15
1980/81Tyrosse (1)MontaubanFinal15-9
1979/80SO Chambéry (1)SC AngoulêmeFinal21-9
Deuxiéme Division Fédéral championship
Season:WinnersRunners upFormatResult
2018/19Issoire (1)RumillyFinal32-30
2017/18Bédarrides Châteauneuf-du-Pape (1)FleuranceFinal24-17
2016/17Carqueiranne-Hyéres (1)US BergeracFinal12-6
2015/16Saint-Jean-de-Luz OR (1)ASVELFinal24-21
2014/15RC Strasbourg (1)LavaurFinal50-23
2013/14Soyaux Angoulême (1)SC GraulhetFinal23-13
2012/13SO Chambéry (1)SA MauléonFinal6-6
2011/12CS Vienne (1)Saint Sulpice sur LèzeFinal29-22
2010/11Stade Phocéen (1)SA HagetmauFinal23-9
2009/10Blagnac (2)RC StrasbourgFinal33-12
2008/09Castanet (1)MonteuxFinal14-6
2007/08Carcassonne (1)ArrasFinal16-15
2006/07Valence d'Agen (1)EVL Hérault XVFinal19-12
2005/06Nafarroa (1)ES Avignon Saint-SaturninFinal12-9
2004/05Gennevilliers (1)ES CatalaneFinal24-15
2003/04Paris université club (1)GourdonFinal11-6
2002/03Cahors Rugby (1)Villefranche sur SaôneFinal22-19
2001/02Bobigny (1)SA Saint-SeverFinal21-16
2000/01Blagnac (1)Aix R.C.Final16-12
1999/00Lons-le-Saunier (1)Avenir aturinFinal23-22
1998/99Bressane (1)LormontFinal37-9
1997/98Céret (1)CA SarlatFinal20-14
Deuxiéme Division championship
Season:WinnersRunners upFormatResult
1996/97Tours (1)LimogesFinal26-20
1995/96Stade Pézenas (1)ASPTTFinal12-9
1994/95US Cognac (1)US AnnonayFinal15-9
1993/94Peyrehorade (1)Boucau TarnosFinal23-9
1992/93Céret (1)Sigean Port La NouvelleFinal18-15
1991/92Lyon OU (2)Stade bagnéraisFinal22-14
1990/91Fleury Olympique (1)SA Saint-SeverFinal10-6
1989/90ASPTT (1)FC Saint-ClaudeFinal18-6
1988/89Lyon OU (1)Cahors RugbyFinal22-12
1987/88Vic-en-Bigorre (2)RO CastelnaudaryFinal16-10
1986/87RC Vichy (1)Paris université clubFinal12-3
1985/86Rumilly (1)SC DecazevilleFinal22-15
1984/85SC Mazamet (1)US CognacFinal12-6
1983/84Montélimar (2)Lombez SamatanFinal15-9
1982/83Blagnac (1)Lyon OUFinal38-3
1981/82Langon (2)SC RieumoisFinal12-0
1980/81US Salles (1)RC VichyFinal16-15
1979/80SA Hagetmau (1)US FoixFinal16-7
1978/79Montélimar (1)Stade foyenFinal15-9
1977/78SA Condom (1)La SeyneFinal13-12
1976/77Vic-en-Bigorre (1)SC PamiersFinal16-10
1975/76Stade ruthénois (2)RiomFinal27-7
1974/75Carcassonne (1)US CognacFinal15-6
1973/74CA Castelsarrasin (2)US SallesFinal21-10
1972/73Bourgoin (3)Le CreusotFinal10-6
1971/72US Carmaux (1)NiceFinal22-16
1970/71Bourgoin (2)SC PamiersFinal15-6
1969/70Stade ruthénois (1)Boucau StadeFinal16-14
1968/69Paris université club (1)SA MauléonFinal17-14
1967/68Saint-Jean-de-Luz OR (1)GaillacFinal12-6
1966/67CA Castelsarrasin (1)OyonnaxFinal11-6
1965/66Bressane (3)MontluçonFinal12-3
1964/65Bourgoin (1)Stade beaumontoisFinal14-6
1963/64US Quillan Espéraza (1)SA CondomFinal11-5
1962/63Langon (1)AS Saint-JunienFinal5-0
1961/62Figeac (1)Valence sportifFinal13-3
1960/61AS Saint-Junien (1)LannemezanFinal6-3
1959/60US Bergerac (1)MarmandeFinal16-3
1958/59Stade Bordelais (1)Lyon OUFinal14-11
1957/58Bressane (2)Boucau StadeFinal16-5
1956/57Brive (1)Bellegarde CoupyFinal20-5
1955/56SO Chambéry (2)Saint-Girons SCFinal6-3
1954/55Cahors Rugby (1)Stade hendayaisFinal14-0
1953/54SO Chambéry (1)Bellegarde CoupyFinal14-6
1952/53Avenir aturin (1)Aix les BainsFinal12-5
1951/52Stade Auto lyonnais (1)Cahors RugbyFinal3-0
1950/51Grenoble (1)La Voulte sportifFinal9-0
1949/50CASG Paris (1)SC PamiersFinal17-6
1948/49SC Graulhet (1)FC OloronFinal6-3
1947/48Tarbes (1)NarbonneFinal6-3
1946/47Auch (1)SO ChambéryFinal5-0
1938/39Bressane (1)FC LourdesFinal5-3
1937/38Valence d'Agen (1)SC TulleFinal7-6
1936/37SC Decazeville (1)US CognacFinal6-0
1935/36FC Lyon (1)Villefranche sur SaôneFinal11-3
1934/35Stade poitevin (1)Valence sportifFinal6-3
1933/34Nice (1)US CognacFinal22-6
1932/33Stade Nantais (1)FC LézignanFinal11-5
1931/32Villefranche sur Saône (1)RC ChalonFinal3-0
1930/31UA Libourne (1)Gujan - MestrasFinal8-5
1929/30Bort les Orgues (1)FC Saint-ClaudeFinal5-0
1928/29AS Roanne (1)Olympique de CarmauxFinal11-0
1927/28CS Vienne (2)AS BayonneFinal3-0
1926/27CS Vienne (1)Arlequins PerpignanFinal12-6
1925/26Racing Club de France (1)SC MazametFinal17-3
1924/25Montferrand (1)BiarritzFinal14-6
TeamTitlesRunners up
Lyon OU22
SO Chambéry21
Stade ruthénois20
CS Vienne20
CA Castelsarrasin20
US Cognac14
Cahors Rugby12
Paris université club11
SC Mazamet11
RC Vichy11
US Salles11
US Carmaux11
SA Condom11
SC Decazeville11
AS Saint-Junien11
Villefranche sur Saône11
Racing Club de France10
Stade Bordelais10
Valence d'Agen10
SC Graulhet10
US Bergerac10
Saint-Jean-de-Luz OR10
Avenir aturin10
US Quillan10
Stade poitevin10
AS Roanne10
UA Libourne10
Stade Pézenas10
FC Lyon10
CASG Paris10
Stade Nantais10
SA Hagetmau10
Bort les Orgues10
SAL Saint Priest10
Fleury Olympique10
Boucau Tarnos03
SC Pamiers03
Valence sportif02
FC Saint-Claude02
Bellegarde Coupy02
Lombez Samatan01
FC Lourdes01
RC Chalon01
Le Creusot01
FC Oloron01
Stade bagnérais01
SC Tulle01
La Voulte sportif01
SA Mauléon01
Stade beaumontois01
Saint-Girons SC01
US Foix01
SA Saint-Sever01
Stade hendayais01
FC Lézignan01
Arlequins Perpignan01
AS Bayonne01
La Seyne01
Gujan - Mestras01
Stade foyen01
RO Castelnaudary01
Aix les Bains01
SC Rieumois01
Sigean Port La Nouvelle01
US Annonay01


www.ffr.fr - French rugby union site
www.lnr.fr/ - Ligue National site
www.rugbyfederal.com - Amateur club association site
www.humanite.fr - L'Humanité online edition
www.ladepeche.fr - La Depeche online edition
www.liberation.fr - Liberation online edition
images.expressdumidi.bibliotheque.toulouse.fr - Express du Midi digitalized editions
images.midi.bibliotheque.toulouse.fr - Midi Socialiste digitalized editions
gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb328123058 - Le Matin digitalized editions
gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34519208g - Paris-soir digitalized editions
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rugby_à_XV_en_France - Wikipedia pages about french rugby
Every site was scanned using also web.archive.org
Many news and results have been taken from the book "Rugby Guide 2009" by François Dubisset.